Development of n3 rich energy bar with flaxseed
Development of n3 rich energy bar with flaxseed
Authors: Mridula, D. Singh, K.K. Bamwal, P.
Publication Name: J Food Sci Technol
Publication Details: Volume 50; Number 5; Pages 950-957
Energy bar sample were prepared with different levels of flaxseed (0 to 20 percent) in addition to cereals and pulses with varying levels of sweeteners (45, 50, and 55 percent) to deliver a nutritious food to the consumer. The developed bars were evaluated for textural, colour, nutritional quality, sensory attributes and total microbial load. Different levels of flaxseed and sweeteners significantly affected the hue and chroma values of the energy bar. In general the level of flaxseed in energy bar did not affect the hardness but it was decreased with increasing level of sweeteners except in control sample. The total calories obtained from the energy bar showed significant increase with the increasing levels of flaxseed, the maximum (397.95 kcal) being for bars with 20 percent flaxseed and 45 percent sweeteners. This energy bar sample also showed the maximum protein (12.41 percent), crude fat (11.86 percent), ash (1.65 percent), iron (3.77 mg/100 g), crude fiber (2.18 percent) and omega 3 as alpha linolenic acid (22.50 percent, fatty acid basis) content. The overall mean sensory score for overall acceptability for samples with 10 percent flaxseed and 55 percent sweeteners and 15 percent flaxseed and 45 percent sweeteners were at par but the omega 3 and other nutrients in the later sample was higher than the former sample, hence, 15 percent flaxseed and 45 percent sweeteners along with other ingredients may be considered for production of acceptable quality omega 3 fatty acid rich energy bar at commercial scale, which also stored well at refrigerated condition. (Authors abstract)
Consumers demand and desire the health foods, which are portable, convenient and proportioned as well. Often, many options aren’t available that are minimally processed, rich in nutrients and tastes good. Energy bars, a food product that fits these criteria, continue to increase in sales according to the ACNielsen Market Track. Due to growing consumer demand for healthy, natural and convenient foods, attempts are being made for dehulling of flaxseed to improve the nutritional value of snack foods by modifying their nutritive composition. The objective of this study was to develop a nutritious energy bar utilizing flaxseed in the formulation along with cereal (white oats), pulses (roasted bengal gram) and legumes (soy protein) to deliver a nutritious health product. Nutritional composition, colour, texture profile analysis, sensory evaluation and microbial load of the energy bar samples were determined to evaluate the acceptability of the product.
Cohesiveness, springiness, chewiness and gumminess were affected by the levels of flaxseed and sweeteners in energy bars. In general, cohesiveness reduced with increasing level of sweeteners at the same level of flaxseed, may be due to the higher moisture content at increasing level of sweeteners. The similar trend was observed for the chewiness. Although textural profile of energy bar was significantly affected with levels of flaxseed and sweeteners, poor correlation may be due to the heterogeneity in the textural properties of samples which may be due to difference in the hardness of ingredients. Different levels of flaxseed did not bring any significant difference in the moisture content. The protein content of different energy bar samples was in the range of 9.12 to 12.41 percent, which was increased significantly with increasing level of flaxseed due to higher protein content in flaxseed but found decreased with increasing level sweeteners due to dilution effect of honey. Similar trend was observed for fat, ash, crude fibre and total calories content in energy bar samples. Omega 3 content as ALA in the flaxseed, used in this study was 44.58 percent of fatty acids. Omega 3 content in different samples was in the range of 10.68 to 22.51 percent of fatty acids, which was found minimum in the control sample with 55 percent of sweeteners and maximum in samples with 20 percent of flaxseed with 45 percent of sweeteners due to presence of highest amount of flaxseed in this sample. During 90 days storage period, the total reduction in omega 3 fatty acid was 10.34 percent and 4.45 percent in the energy bar samples kept at 25 degrees C and refrigerator, respectively.
Different levels of flaxseed brought significant variation in the mean sensory scores for appearance and colour, and odour of energy bar samples but sensory texture, flavour and taste and overall acceptability were affected by sweeteners too. Highest mean sensory scores i.e. 7.9 and 8.2 for flavour and taste and overall acceptability, respectively were observed for samples with 5 percent of flaxseed and 55 percent sweeteners but the mean sensory scores for texture (7.9) and flavour and taste (7.8) of energy bar with 10 percent of flaxseed and 55 percent sweeteners was at par with the former sample. As per the mean comparison by LSD, overall acceptability scores of energy bar samples with 45 and 50 percent sweeteners were at par. Energy bar samples with 15 percent flaxseed and 45 percent sweeteners, which were found good in omega 3 fatty acid and well accepted during sensory evaluation, hence they were considered for shelf life study. Mean sensory scores for energy bar samples, stored at 25 degrees C were slightly lower than samples stored in refrigerator but were in the same hedonic scale category i.e. like very much to like moderately. This may be due to suitability of lower temperature i.e. refrigeration for storage of energy bar samples, which did not cause much deterioration in physico to chemical and sensory quality of products as compared to 25 degrees C.