Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk.

January 1, 2006 Human Health and Nutrition Data 0 Comments

Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk.

Year: 2006
Authors: Psota, TL, Gebauer, SK, Kris-Etherton, PM.
Publication Name: Am. J. Cardiol
Publication Details: Volume 98S, Page 3i.


Data from epidemiologic and controlled intervention studies have reported beneficial effects of omega 3 fatty acids, both marine and plant derived, on a number of CVD end-points including fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. Although this paper reviews the available evidence supporting these effects for all omega 3’s, the information presented in this abstract is specific to plant based ALA. The MFRIT study, which was an interventional study in men at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) reported a significant inverse relationship between CVD mortality and baseline intake of dietary omega 3 fatty acids after 10.5 years of follow-up. Epidemiologic evidence supports a correlation between a 1 g/day increase in ALA intake and a reduction in CAD incidence of 16%. In a cohort of 76,283 women involved in the Nurses Health Study, a significant reduction in 10-year CAD mortality was associated with increasing intakes of ALA. In the Lyon Diet Heart Study, patients who had suffered a previous myocardial infarction and subsequently received a margarine with ALA (1.8g/d) exhibited a decreased risk for all-cause mortality. Based on dietary estimates for fats and fatty acids, the mean ALA intake in US men is 1.7g/day and 1.3g/day for women. The Institute of Medicine of the National Acadamies has set a dietary recommendation for ALA of 1.6g/day for men and 1.1g/day for women. This represents approximately 0.6% of energy intake for sedentary adults. The acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range, which is the range of intake in a nutritionally adequate diet for a particular macronutrient that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease, for ALA is 0.6% to 1.2% of calories. The dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) Report 2005 recommends an ALA intake between 0.6% and 1.2% of calories. The most important sources of plant based omega 3 ALA include flaxseed, flaxseed oil, canola oil, walnuts, and soybean oil.

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