Effect of Flax Addition on the Flavor Profile and Acceptability of Bagels

January 1, 2012 Human Health and Nutrition Data 0 Comments

Effect of Flax Addition on the Flavor Profile and Acceptability of Bagels

Year: 2012
Authors: Aliani, M. Ryland, D. Pierce, G.N.
Publication Name: JFood Sci.
Publication Details: Volume 71; Number 1; Pages S62-68


Bakery products containing flaxseed, a rich source of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), may provide health benefits.  However, the effect of adding flaxseed, especially in the high amounts required for use as the food supplement in clinical trials (23 percent by weight of the raw ingredients), may affect the flavor characteristics and consumer acceptability. Sensory attributes of bagels containing 30 g of milled flaxseed were evaluated by a 9 member trained panel using a descriptive test and by 89 participants using a consumer test. Grain/flax aroma and flavor were significantly higher for the flax bagels compared to the nonflax bagels. The cinnamon raisin bagel had significantly lower grain/flax aroma and flavor and significantly higher sweet aroma and taste compared to the plain and sunflower sesame types. Older consumers rated the appearance, color, and flavor of the bagels significantly higher than the younger consumers possibly leading to higher compliance in clinical studies for this age group. Bagels with flax showed a significantly lower mean value for flavor acceptability, overall acceptability, and frequency of eating compared to bagels without flax. Appearance, color, and texture acceptability showed no significant differences. The cinnamon raisin bagel had significantly higher flavor acceptance compared to sunflower sesame and plain bagels. In conclusion, for bagels containing 6 g ALA in the form of milled flaxseed, cinnamon raisin appears to be a promising flavoring alternative for ALA fortification for use in clinical trials or as part of the daily diet. (Authors abstract)
Milled flaxseed can be incorporated into bakery product formulations, such as breads, muffins, crackers, cookies, and bagels, without difficulty due to its free flowing properties. The high baking temperature required for these products does not appear to adversely affect ALA content of the added flaxseed.   It was found that there was no significant decrease in ALA in muffins containing 28.5 percent milled flaxseed (based on total ingredient weight) that were heated to 178 degree C for 2 h. The wide consumption of bakery products also makes them ideally suited for fortification for foods in the daily diet as well as those used for clinical trials. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed addition on the flavor profile and acceptability of different bagel formulations. The overall presence of flax was found to produce bagels that were significantly higher in bitterness which for the most part is not a typical characteristic in bagels, although the mean value was low at 2 on the 15-cm scale. No significant differences in bitterness were shown between the plain bagel and the 2 flavorings. Cinnamon raisin was significantly higher in sweetness than the other 2 samples that does not relate to the approximately 1 percent less sugar in this bagel type. Although flax inclusion did not affect the sweet aroma, the cinnamon raisin bagel also had significantly higher sweet aroma than the other 2 flavor types.
Overall, the cinnamon raisin flavor type had a significantly higher flavor acceptability mean score compared to the others that could make it a possible candidate for fortification since acceptable flavor is an important criteria for healthy foods. Despite the addition of color in the nonflax products, no significant difference in color acceptance was shown between the flax and nonflax products or for the flavor type. Acceptance of appearance and texture also showed no significant differences for presence of flax or flavor type. Fortification of bagels with 30 g milled flaxseed at the level used in this study affected the aroma and flavor attributes. Plain bagels containing flax showed a higher intensity of grain/flax aroma and flavor that was shown to be decreased for the cinnamon raisin flavoring compared to the sunflower sesame. Cinnamon raisin bagels were significantly sweeter for both aroma and flavor than the other 2 bagel types.
In terms of acceptability, no significant gender differences were noted. However, consumers in the 35 to 6  y category rated the samples significantly higher in appearance, color, and flavor acceptability compared to the younger group. This may lead to increased compliance in clinical trials studying cardiovascular disease as subjects tend to be in the older age category. Although the presence of flax significantly lowered the flavor acceptability, cinnamon raisin bagels were rated higher in flavor acceptability compared to the other 2 samples perhaps due to a higher perceived sweetness in addition to the cinnamon and raisin flavoring.  Cinnamon raisin appears to be a promising flavoring alternative for flaxseed bagels containing 6 g ALA for use in clinical trials or as part of the daily diet. (Editors comments)

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