Effect of Flax Addition on the Flavor Profile and Acceptability of Bagels

January 1, 2012 Human Health and Nutrition Data 0 Comments

Effect of Flax Addition on the Flavor Profile and Acceptability of Bagels

Year: 2012
Authors: Aliani, M. Ryland, D. Pierce, G.N.
Publication Name: Journal of Food Science
Publication Details: Volume 77; Issue 1; Pages S62 – S70.


Bakery products containing flaxseed, a rich source of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), may provide health benefits. However, the effect of adding flaxseed, especially in the high amounts required for use as the food supplement in clinical trials (23% by weight of the raw ingredients), may affect the flavor characteristics and consumer acceptability. Sensory attributes of bagels containing 30 g of milled flaxseed were evaluated by a 9 member trained panel using a descriptive test and by 89 participants using a consumer test. Grain/flax aroma and flavor were significantly higher for the flax bagels compared to the nonflax bagels. The cinnamon raisin bagel had significantly lower grain/flax aroma and flavor and significantly higher sweet aroma and taste compared to the plain and sunflower sesame types. Older consumers rated the appearance, color, and flavor of the bagels significantly higher than the younger consumers possibly leading to higher compliance in clinical studies for this age group. Bagels with flax showed a significantly lower mean value for flavor acceptability, overall acceptability, and frequency of eating compared to bagels without flax. Appearance, color, and texture acceptability showed no significant differences. The cinnamon raisin bagel had significantly higher flavor acceptance compared to sunflower sesame and plain bagels. In conclusion, for bagels containing 6 g ALA in the form of milled flaxseed, cinnamon raisin appears to be a promising flavoring alternative for ALA fortification for use in clinical trials or as part of the daily diet. (Authors abstract)
Conflicting results of the effects of flaxseed on various health outcomes lead to the design of this long-term clinical trial to determine the effect of flaxseed on the clinical outcome of patients with peripheral artery disease. Supplemented products for clinical trials need to contain an amount and type of flaxseed that will significantly increase the levels of ALA in the blood. Previous work by this research group found that a 6 g/d dose of ALA in the form of 30 g/d of milled flaxseed should be used in clinical trials. Milled flaxseed can be incorporated into bakery product formulations, such as breads, muffins, crackers, cookies, and bagels, without difficulty due to its free flowing properties. The wide consumption of bakery products also makes them ideally suited for fortification for foods in the daily diet as well as those used for clinical trials. Bagels were used in the studies conducted by this group as well as other flax fortified products. Our informal survey conducted with the study subjects found that the bagels were the most popular food options. However, the high level of flaxseed needed for fortification represents a challenge to food developers as flavor is of prime importance in acceptance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed addition on the flavor profile and acceptability of different bagel formulations. Fortification of bagels with milled flaxseed at the level used in this study affected the aroma and flavor attributes. Plain bagels containing flax showed a higher intensity of grain/flax aroma and flavor that was shown to be decreased for the cinnamon raisin flavoring compared to the sunflower sesame. Cinnamon raisin bagels were significantly sweeter for both aroma and flavor than the other 2 bagel types. In terms of acceptability, no significant gender differences were noted. However, consumers in the 35 to 64 year category rated the samples significantly higher in appearance, color, and flavor compared to the younger group. This may lead to increased compliance in clinical trials studying cardiovascular disease as subjects tend to be in the older age category. Although the presence of flax significantly lowered the flavor acceptability, cinnamon raisin bagels were rated higher in flavor acceptability compared to the other 2 samples perhaps due to a higher perceived sweetness in addition to the cinnamon and raisin flavoring. Cinnamon raisin appears to be a promising flavoring alternative for flaxseed bagels containing 6 g ALA for use in clinical trials or as part of the daily diet. (Editors comments)

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