Quality of gluten-free supplemented cakes and biscuits

January 1, 2009 Human Health and Nutrition Data 0 Comments

Quality of gluten-free supplemented cakes and biscuits

Year: 2009
Authors: Gambus, H. Gambus, F.
Publication Name: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition
Publication Details: Volune 60; Number S4; Pages 31 50.


Gluten-free confectionery products were used as controls for comparison with the products, which included different supplements such as linseed meal, amaranth and/or buckwheat. The latter were expected to increase nutritional values of confectionery products. Cookies were analyzed in terms of volume, selected textural parameters (hardness, cohesiveness), organoleptic quality, shelf-life, and different chemical components. All supplemented gluten-free products received high consumer scores, exceeding in some cases those of control samples. Supplementation of gluten-free confectionery products with linseed meal, amaranth and/or buckwheat flours enhanced their final nutritional quality. A significant rise was observed in the protein content and dietary fiber, and in the case of linseed meal also alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). All of the supplemented gluten-free confectionery products contained more macro-elements and microelements (i.e. potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese, zinc and copper), as compared with the controls. Taking into account the amino-acid composition, amaranth proved a more beneficial supplement of gluten-free products than linseed. (Auhtors abstract)
Celiac disease is common among the white population of Europe, North America and Australia, where cereals containing gluten are traditionally everyday food. The preparation of gluten-free bakery products requires application of different flours in exchange for wheat flour, so the resulting taste very often does not resemble that of classical, gluten productsGluten-free products are usually protein-free products. Removal of proteins deprives the raw material of minerals and vitamins, which negatively impacts its nutritional value. This is the reason why gluten-free products should be supplemented by raw materials naturally free of gluten, and rich in additional nutrients. Baking of gluten-free product allows introducing various additions in the amounts of several percent, depending on their type and properties. Milk powder, whey, dried yeast, soy preparations and various oilseeds, legumes and pseudo-cereals or non-bread cereals, such as buckwheat are often used. The aim of the present study was the application of naturally gluten-free raw materials rich in nutrients deficient in the average gluten-free diet (i.e. amaranth flour, linseed meal, and buckwheat flour) for baking cakes and biscuits with improved chemical composition, and with retained attractive appearance, texture and organoleptic, as well as storage properties.  The results showed that sponge cakes prepared with these ingredients were highly accepted by the consumers and can be described as very good. Comparable scores were obtained from the two types of carrot cake, control CR 1 (score of 4.40) and CR 2 with 64% of milled linseed instead of corn flour.  Among biscuits, the highest scores were received by B 3 products (score of 4.83) supplemented with 40% buckwheat flour and 30% amaranth flour in exchange for corn flour. The use of 50% linseed meal in coconut cakes CN 2 positively influenced sensory parameters (total score of 4.96), so that they were regarded as very good.  Both in case of sponge cake as well as carrot cake the classical increase of hardness over the storage period was observed.  The negative impact of the amount of dietary fiber on the quality of sponge cake was even more pronounced concerning volume (Figure 2) and consumer acceptance.  Coconut cakes displayed a slightly different pattern of texture changes. The linseed meal in CN 2 cookies resulted in their lower hardness in comparison with CN 1 control on the day of baking, which may be attributed to high content of lipids in this product.  The nutritional profile of sponge cake made with amaranth flour, carrot cake with linseed meal, biscuits with buckwheat and amaranth flour, as well as coconut cakes with milled linseed were positively affected by the supplementation. (Editors comments)

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