The Oslo Diet-Heart Study.
The Oslo Diet-Heart Study.
Authors: P Leren.
Publication Name: Circulation.
Publication Details: Volume XLII; Page 935.
Clinical and prospective evidence indicates that blood cholesterol levels are an important risk factor which precipitates early events associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Whether this is true of recurrent events had not been established at the time of this study (1970). Using data from the Oslo Diet Heart Study mortality in patients after 11-years of follow-up was investigated. The Oslo Diet Heart Study was organized between 1956-58, and included 412 men aged 30-64 years of age with a first diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI). Participants were randomly allocated to an experimental diet group or a control group for a five-year period. For the experimental diet group, a diet low in saturated fats and cholesterol, and high in polyunsaturated fat was recommended. Control subjects consumed their usual habitual diet. Regular detailed clinical follow-up was undertaken for a 5 year period, which included clinical examinations, diet and weight control, serial serum cholesterol analysis, and electrocardiograms. Subsequent follow-up to the 11 year mark (the present study) did not include further clinical or laboratory evaluation or dietary advice, only evaluation of number of participants who had died. After 5 years, a significant reduction in the incidence of fatal and nonfatal myocardial re-infarction, as well as major CHD relapses, was observed in the experimental group, while sudden death was unchanged. After 11 years, death from all causes had occurred in 101 men in the experimental group and 108 in the control group. A significant reduction in mortality from MI was observed in the experimental group versus the controls (32 versus 57, respectively). The total number of coronary deaths (fatal MI and sudden death) was also reduced in the experimental group compared to the controls (79 versus 94, respectively). In men aged <60 years who died of CHD, higher mean cholesterol values were noted in comparison to survivors. No differences were observed in the >60 years age group. Mortality in both experimental and control groups was higher in the older age group (>60 years) compared to the younger (<60 years). Blood pressure appeared to be of little influence as an isolated risk factor. Data presented in this early research identified that CHD mortality is strongly correlated with age, serum cholesterol values, blood pressure, body weight, smoking habits, and/or a combination of these risk factors. These very valuable observations have subsequently been used as variables as important considerations in the design of modern clinical nutritional interventions.